Events and developments that have had an impact on the lighting community at large.

    The International Association of Lighting Designers is formed. A group of 15 lighting designers meet at Luchows restaurant in New York to discuss the benefits of coming together to acquire health insurance, establish standardized contracts and the possibility of licensure. The organization officially incorporates in October 1971.

    The Lighting Research Center is founded as part of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The university-based research center is devoted solely to lighting topics and offers graduate level one- and two-year master's programs and a Ph.D. program. Also in 1988, the Nuckolls Fund for Lighting Education is established to support college-level lighting programs.

    General Electric introduces the first Halogen InfraRed (HIR) lamp.

    The first electrodeless fluorescent lamp powered through induction by an HF generator is introduced by Philips Lighting. The QL Induction lamps, introduced in 55W and 85W, have a lifetime of 60,000 hours and a QL ballast.

    The National Energy Policy Act is signed into law; it calls for minimum standards for color-rendering and efficacy, and goes into effect Oct. 31, 1995. Manufacturers phase out production of non-complying lamps over the next three years, including many R-lamps and “standard” F40T12 cool-white and warm-white fluorescents.

    The first blue LED is introduced, credited to Shuji Nakamura for Nichia Corp. Nakamura is able to demonstrate that it has commercial viability and receives a $200 bonus, but later sues Nichia and wins a settlement of $8.1 million.

    The European Lighting Designers' Association is formed, known by its acronym ELDA. In 2007, ELDA will change its name to the Professional Lighting Designers' Association (PLDA).

    Philips, Osram, and GE introduce 16mm-diameter T5 lamps in Europe, designed to operate exclusively with electronic ballasts (dimming possible) and offer a 10 to 15 percent improvement in efficacy compared with T8 lamps. Its overall length is reduced by 50mm, allowing for more efficient reflector designs.

    The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) and the European Lighting Designers' Association (ELDA) explore the possibility of a global union. After extensive discussion and debate the IALD votes against a proposed union with ELDA.

    On Aug 14, 50 million people in the Northeast and Canada are plunged into darkness for days. The 2003 Blackout is the worst power failure in U.S. history and raises questions about the country's aging infrastructure and electrical grid.

    TIR Systems introduced its solid-state lighting Lexel technology: white-light LEDs with good color-rendering. It makes LEDs viable for architectural lighting applications.

    Philips acquires LED company Color Kinetics for $791 million. The move enables Philips to provide system solutions, not just components, and gives them greater command over the supply chain from chip to luminaire.

    On Dec. 19, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 is signed into law. The law is not directed at lighting, per se, but one provision is significant: It leads to a phaseout of general service incandescent sources.

    Proposed language in Texas House Bill 2649 threatens lighting designers' ability to practice in Texas. Lighting community outreach, right before the bill is passed, succeeds in having the contested verbage removed.

    The 10th Edition of the Illuminating Engineering Society handbook is published. It is a significant revision that reflects the monumental changes in light source technology, namely the advent of LEDs as well as energy issues, the impact of light on health and visual perception, and advances in daylighting and lighting controls.